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Islamic Glossary

ISLAMIC GLOSSARY AND EXPRESSIONS

 

All of the believers are encouraged to praise/bless in certain ways when mentioning;

 

Allah’s name - Subhanaha wa ta ala – (He is exalted above weakness and indignity)

- Azza wa jall - ( May he be hallowed and glorified)

- Jalla jalaluh - (May his glory be hallowed)

Prophet Muhammad – Salla Llahu alayhi wa ale hi wasalam – (May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him and his family)

All Prophets and Angels – Alayhi is salaam – (Peace be upon them)

Prophet’s male companion / Male member of Prophet’s family – Radiya Llahu anhu –

(May Allah be pleased with him)

Prophet’s female companion / Female member of Prophet’s family – Radiya Llahu anha –

(May Allah be pleased with her)

A group of campanions - Radiya Llahu anhum - (May Allah be pleased with them)

A respected scholar / alim / wali-Allah - Rahimahu ‘ Llah

A

Ashurah

Tenth day of the month of Muharram. The day of the Martyrdom Imam Hussain ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala.

Adab

Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good adab.

Abd

servant, worshipper, slave. Muslims are servants and slaves of God. A common Muslim name is Abd'allah/Abdullah, or Servant of Allah.

Adl

Justice especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, environmental.

Ahl al Kitab

"People of the Book"

Ahad

literally "only." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like God.

Ahkam

rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. Five kinds of orders: 1. Wajib (Compulsory), 2. Mustahab (order without obligation) 3. Muharram (forbidden) 4. Makruh (disliked but not forbidden) 5. Halal (legal and allowed).

Al Quthum

Allah’s messenger(saw), the best of creation, the one with all good virtues, characteristics and qualities gathered together.

Ahl ul Bayt

members of Prophet Muhammad(saw)'s Household.

Akhlaq

The practice of virtue. Morals.

Alamin

Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, and all that exists

Alhamdulillah

"Praise to God!" Qur'anic exclamation

Allahu Akbar

"God is the Greatest." Islamic expression.

Al-Isra

"Night journey" of the Prophet (saw) 

Akhirah

the afterlife / the hereafter which is beyond this present one.

 

 

Alim

One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion).

Amanah

the trust. Of all creation, only human beings carry the "trust", which is free will.

Ameen

Amen, a supplication meaning, "O Allah, respond (to or answer what we have said)."

 

Ansar

"Helpers." The Muslim converts at Medina who helped the Muslims from Mecca after the Hijrah.

Aqidah

The Islamic creed, or the articles of faith, which consists of the belief in God, Angels, Messengers and Prophets, Scriptures, the Day of Judgment, and Destiny.

Aql

Intelligence, intellect, mind, understanding

Asr

The third salah prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after noon. alo means "era".

 

Asharatu mubashshirun

The blessed ten companions of Prophet Muhammad (saw) who were promised Paradise in their lifetime. 

Assalamu alaikum

The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you".

 

Astaghfirullah

"I ask Allah's forgiveness."

 

 

Auliya'a

friends, protectors, helpers.

 

 

 

Awrah

the part of a person's body that must be covered before everybody but a spouse. It may also be used to refer to what must be concealed of a woman before non-related men

Ayah

a sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.

Azhan

The Islamic call to prayer; see adhan.

 

 

B

Baitullah

"House of Allah."

Barakah

a blessing.

Barzakh

Life after death in which the soul of the deceased is transferred across the boundaries of the mortal realm into the spirit world

Basher

Human(s). Literally means 'face' but generally it refers to a person (man/woman)

Bid'ah

Innovation in religion, i.e. inventing new methods of worship.

Bint

daughter of

Bismillah

"In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful" (:bismi-llāhi ar-rahmāni ar-rahīmi)

 

 

C

Caliph

literally successor; refers to the successor of the Prophet Muhammad(saw), the ruler of the Islamic world.

 

D

Dajjal

The False Messiah, means "liar"

Dallan

going astray

Dar al-Ahd

the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states

Dar al-Amn

status of a Muslim living in the Western world

Dar al-Dawa

a region where Islam has recently been introduced

Dar al-Harb

areas outside Muslim rule; the non-Islamic world

Dar al-Islam

the abode, or land, of Islam

Dar al-Kufr

refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return

Daw’ah

the call to Islam

Dhimmi

"Protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others, such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), whose right to practice their religion is tolerated under Islamic law, but with lower legal status.

Deen

the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Deen is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam.

Dua

personal prayer, supplication

Dhikr

remembrance of Allah; recitation of Allah(swt) names and praise.

Dhuhr

second salah prayer

Dunya

This world or life.

Dabt

Strong memory which is a necessary characteristic of the transmitters of Hadith.

 

Daif

Weak; referring to any hadith in which there is some defect or doubt in the chain of transmission.

E

Eid

festival or celebration.

Eid ul-Adha

"the Festival of Sacrifice." The four day celebration starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.

Eid ul-Fitr

"the Festival of Fitr(Money Gifting)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.

 

F

Fajarah

Wicked evil doers. Plural of "Fajir"

Falah

success, happiness, well-being

Fajr

morning, as in the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.

Farz

a religious duty, or an obligatory action: meaning the five pillars of Islam. 1. Faith 2. Salat 3. Fasting 4. Zakat 5. Hajj

Fasiq

anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted (plural "fasiqun").

Fatwa

legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his taqlid

Fiqh

jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws.

Fi sabil Allah

on the path of God; common Islamic expression for military Jihad.

Fitna

trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, natural disasters etc. The period of time before the end of the world.

Fitrah

innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.

 

 

Furqan

the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.

 

G

Ghafara

(verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of Allah(swt).

Ghaib

the unseen, unknown.

Ghusl

full ablution of the whole body

 

H

Hadi

a guide, one who guides; One of Allah (swt) names is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.

Hidaya

guidance from Allah(swt).

Hadith

literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad(saw) validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah

Halal

lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable

 

Hafiz

someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca. This is the fifth Pillar of Islam

 

 

Hanif

one of the five monotheist prophets; namely, Prophet Adam(as), Prophet Abraham(as)/Ibrahim, Prophet Moses(as)/Musa, Prophet Isa(as) (Jesus), and Prophet Muhammad(saw). Plural hunafa'

Haqq

truth, reality, right, righteousness. A name for Allah(swt) is al-haqq.

Haraam

forbidden. Antonym: halal.

Haram

sanctuary.

Hasan

Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authenic and fabricated).

Hasad

Envy

Hijab

literally "cover". It describes the self-covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity.

Haya

the quality of decency and modesty.

Hijra

Prophet Muhammad (saw) and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina in 622 ad. Literally, "migration".

Hikmah

Wisdom. Referring to the Quranic term for the Sunnah of Rasul-Allah(saw)

Hima

wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons, important to khalifa

 

Hilm

Self-restraint

Hizb

one half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an

Houries

beautiful and pure young men and women, that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.

Huda

guidance

 

Hudna

cease-fire (often temporary)

Hudud

Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by Allah(swt) on man; penalties of the Islamic law which are described in the Qur'an.

Hukm

ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah

 

I

Ibadah

worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of servitude to Allah, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.

Iblis

the jinn banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; later named ‘Shaytan’

Iftaar

a light meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset.

Ihram

state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.

 

Ihsan

perfection in worship, Muslims should try to worship Allah(swt) as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He is constantly watching over them.

 

Ijaz

how Muslims describe the character of the Quran in both form and content

Ijma

the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) - one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself.

Ijtihad

during the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. The one who exercises ijtihad is a ‘mujtahid’.

Ikhlas

Extreme sincerity.

Ilah

deity, lord, god; not necessarily The God.

Ilm

all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science

Imam

literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer

Imamah

successorship of Prophet Muhammad(saw) and the leadership of mankind.

Imaan

personal faith

Infaq

the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charity

 

 

Injil

Muslim term for the holy book said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa(as) to Muslims; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories about Isa(as)

 

Insha'Allah

God Willing.

Iqamah

the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.

Isha

night; the fifth salah prayer

Isharat

Signs of the last day

Islam

"submission to Allah(swt)". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.

Isnad

chain of transmitters of any given hadith

Isnah

process of validating the hadith; citation methodology

Isra

the night journey during which Prophet Muhammad (saw) visited Heaven. See miraj.

Istislah

public interest - a source of Islamic Law.

Istish-haad

heroic martyrdom.

 

 

 

J

Jahannam

the Hell-fire; Hell

Jahiliya

the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.

 

Jahl

ignorance, arrogance

Jami

A comprehensive and inclusive book of hadith

Jamia

"gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.

Janaza

funeral prayer

Jannah

Paradise, Heaven, the Garden

 

Jazakallahu Khayran

"May Allah reward you for the good." Islamic expression of gratitude.

Jihad

struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of Allah, involving personal, physical, intellectual or military effort, for righteousness and against wrong-doing;

"Lesser Jihad": fighting to protect Islam from attack or oppression. In such fighting, no woman, child or innocent civilian is to be harmed, and no tree is to be cut down.

"Greater Jihad": internal struggle for the soul (nafs) against evil, e.g. to overcome the temptation to sleep when it is time to pray the morning prayer is a greater jihad.

Jilbāb

(pl. jalabib)a long, flowing, baggy garment worn by some to fulfill the mandates of sartorial hijab. Muslims believe that jilbāb is incumbent upon Muslim women to wear this as a sign of modesty.

Jinn

An invisible being of fire

Jumuah

Friday prayer

Juz'

one of thirty parts of the Qur'an

K

Ka'bah

cube-house; the cube-shaped building i.e in Mecca toward which Muslims pray.

Kafir

from the word kafara - "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful. Plural: Kaffirun.

Kalam

Islamic theology

Karam

Generosity

Khalifa

Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.

Khatib

the speaker at the Friday Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer

Khilafa

Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate

Kharaj

a land tax

Khutbah

the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer

 

Kibar/kibr

False pride

Kitab

book; The Qur'an is often referred to as "Al-Kitab"

Khutbah

Sermon

Kufr

In Arabic - ungratefulness and disbelief. Islamically speaking, disbelief in Allah(swt) and denial of the truth.

Kun

"Be!" Allah's command to the universe, 'Be!' and it is.

 

L

Laghw

Dirty, false, evil vain talk

La ilaha illallah

"There is no god (ilah) except God (Allah)." The most important expression in Islam. It is part of the first pillar of Islam.

la'nat

curse

Laylat al-Qadr

the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Prophet Muhammad (saw)received the first revelation of the Qur'an. Commonly thought by scholars as being 27th night of Ramadan.

 

 

 

 

M

Madhab

school of religious jurisprudence, school of thought

Madrasa

school, university

 

Maghrib

the fourth daily salah prayer

Mahdi

"a guide".

Mahram

a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.

Makrouh

Though not haraam (forbidden), that is disliked or offensive.

Malaikah

angels

Manaqib

Virtues, outstanding traits, feats, exploits

Manzil

one of seven parts of the Qur'an

Ma'ruf

consensus of the community

Maqasid

goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law

 

Masha Allah

Allah has willed it.

Masih

the Messiah, Isa (as) Jesus Christ.

Masjid

place of prayer; mosque

Masum

literally, innocent or free of sin; children are considered masum.

Matn

The text and content of hadith

Mawdu

Fabricated, an untrue hadith.

Me'ad

the Resurrection; Allah(swt) will resurrect all of humankind to be judged.

Mecca

the holiest city in Islam

Medina

"city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet(saw)." See hijrah.

Mihrab

a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayer

Minaret

a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is made

Minbar

a pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermons

 

 

Minhaj

methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.

Miraj

the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey. Commonly thought as being the 27th night of the month of Rajab. See also: isra

Mu'awwidhatayn

suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "suras of refuge"

 

Mu’allaq

A hadith collection, which includes Traditions neglected by earlier compilers.

Mubah

literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral.

Mu’dal

A hadith in which two continous links are missing in one or more places from the Isnad.

Muhajabah

woman who wears hijab

Muhammadun rasulullah

"Muhammad(saw) is the messenger of Allah." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.

Muazzin

a person who performs the call to prayer

Mujahid

One who thrives through jihad / a fighter for Islam. Plural mujahideen.

Mujtahid

a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.

 

 

Muh'min

believer

Muhajir

1) Emigrant 2) the one who gives up what Allah(swt) has prohibited.

Muhrim

The one who assumes the state of Ihram for the purpose of performing Hajj or Umrah.

Mujam

A type of collection sometimes arranged in alphabetical order

Mursal

A hadith in which a tabi’l (successor) transmits from the Prophet Muhammad(saw) directly.

 

Munafiq

hypocrite. Plural: Munafiqun

Munaqabah

woman who wears niqab

Muntaq’I

A hadith going back to the successor only.

Murtadd

apostate

Muslim

a follower of the religion of Islam.

Musnad

Collection in which Traditions are arranged according to the names of the Sahabah.

 

Mustakhraj

A work in which later scholars revise early major scholars and add to them additional commentaries.

Mut'ah

joy, a type of marriage or a practice between Umrah and Hajj.

Mutawir

Continous; a hadith reported by a large number of people in different times thus making it impossible for any falsehood to enter into it. This condition must be met in the entire chain from the origin to the end.

Muttafaqun ‘ alai-hi

Agreed upon; any hadith which is transmitted by Bukhari or Muslim.

 

N

Nabi

literally, Prophet. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Ibrahim(as) was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.

Nafs

soul, one's self

Najaassa

Impurity

Nakir and Munkar

two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves

Nifaq

falsehood; dishonesty

Niqab

veil covering the face

Naseeha

advice

 

 

Nass

a known, clear legal injunction

Nubuwwah

Prophethood.

Nur

light. angels were created from light.

 

 

 

 

 

P

Purda

not an Arabic term; means "curtain" in Persian. Metaphorically refers to the practice of secluding women.

 

Q

Qadar

Destiny; believing everything good or bad happens according to what Allah(swt) has ordained for it.

 

Qadi

judge of Islamic Law

Qiblah

the direction Muslims face during prayer

Qiyamah

resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment

Qiyas

analogy - foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh

Qutba

sermon given by the imam in a mosque

Qudsi

classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Prophet Muhammad (saw) from Allah(swt) directly.

Qur'an

Qur'an is the literal word of God and culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to Prophet Muhammad(saw) in the year 610 A.D.

 

 

 

R

Rabb

Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.

Rahman

Merciful; Ar-Rahman means "The Most Merciful"

Rahim

compassionate; Ar-Rahim means "The Most Compassionate" as in the Kalima.

Rakaat

one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of rakaat.

Rasul

messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses(as), David(as), Jesus(as) and Muhammed(saw) are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.

Riba

interest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Qur'an

Rifq

kindness

Risalah

literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.

Ruh

spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam(as).

Rukn

the five pillars of the Islamic faith, also arkan.

Ruk'u

the bowing performed during Muslim prayer

 

S

Sabr

patience, endurance, self-restraint

Sadaqah

charity; voluntary alms

Sadaqah Jariyah

Recurring charity

Sahabah

companions of Prophet Muhammad(saw)

Sahih

Absolutely correct hadith; "Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith. There is no weakness and the transmitters have possessed both ‘adl and dabt.

Sajda

prostration

Sakina

A divine tranquillity that is believed to descend when the Qur’an is recited.

Salaf

(righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims.

Salah or salat

any one of the 5 daily obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as the second Pillar of Islam

Salaam

peace

Salat

the 1st salah prayer

 

Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam

"May the blessings and the peace of Allah be upon him." Expression used when hearing the name of Prophet Muhammad(saw)

Samad

eternal, absolute; Allah (swt) is "The Eternal."

Salsabil

a river in heaven (al-firdaus)

Sawm

fasting during the month of Ramadhan.

Sayyad

a descendent of a relative of Prophet Muhammad(saw) (because all his sons Qasim, Abdullah, and Ibraheem died before having children)

Shahadah

The expression of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God.").

Shahid

"witness". More specifically refers to a person killed whilst striving in Islam, a martyr.

 

Shaikh

a spiritual master

Sharia/shariah

"the path to a watering hole"; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an and Sunnah; basis of fiqh

 

Shaytan

Satan, the Devil. Also known as Iblis.

 

Shi'a

a follower of Prophet Muhammad(saw) and his successors (the twelve Imams), the first being Ali(ra). Shi'as constitute the second largest sect in Islam.

Shirk

idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except Allah(swt) and setting any rivals to the one and only Allah(swt). There are three types of shirk;

1) Shirk Akbar 2) Shirk Asghar 3) Shirk Khafi.

Shirk Akbar – devote any form of worship to other than Allah(swt). This takes the person outside of the fold of Islam. There are four types; 1) Involving supplications to other than Allah(swt) 2) the purpose and intentions not for the sake of Allah but directed towards others 3) Rendering obedience to any authority against the laws of Allah(swt) 4) Showing love and dedication to others ahead of Allah(swt).

Shirk Asghar – The acts of worship done to gain praise or fame rather than to please Allah(swt) exclusively. This is a smaller type of shirk.

Shirk Khafi – This is inconspicuous and implies being dissatisfied with the conditions ordained by Allah(swt). Need to be beware of this most common form as confirmed by Prophet Muhammad(saw) ‘ This is more hidden among the nation than the track of a black ant over a black stone on a dark night’. (Musnad Ahmad)

Shura

consultation

majlis ash-shura

advisory council

 

Sira

life or biography of the Prophet Muhammad(saw); his moral example - with hadith this comprises the sunnah

Sirat al-Mustaqim

the Straight Path

Sirat

Means ‘road’. Also it is the bridge that is laid across the Hell-fire for the people to pass over on the Day of Judgement. Described as sharper than a sword and thinner than hair.

Subhanahu wa ta'ala (swt)

expression Muslims use whenever the name of Allah is pronounced or written.

 

 

Subhan'allah

expression used by Muslims to express strong feelings of joy or relief.

 

Suffah

The first Islamic University, established in the mosque of Prophet Muhammad(saw)

Sufi

a Muslim mystic

Suhoor

the meal eaten by fasting Muslims just before dawn.

Sunnah or sunnah al-Nabi

the "path" or "example" of the Prophet Muhammad(saw), i.e., what the Prophet did or said or agreed to during his life which is used as a complement to the Qur’an in understanding Islam. A way / a rule / a precedent / a manner of life. He is the best human moral example, the best man to follow.

Sunni

the largest sect in Islam

Sura

chapter; the Qur'an is comprised of 114 suras

 

T

Taba'een

followers of the Sahabah

Tabi’l

The one who follows; those who succeeded the Sahabah.

Tafsir

exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an

Taghut

impurity; anything worshipped or obeyed other than Allah(swt), i.e. all the false deities.

Tahajjud

optional, late night prayer

Taharah

purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl

Tahir

pure, ritually clean

Tajdid

to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice

Tajwid

a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.

Takbir

a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a Muslim invocation.

Takfeer

to declare kufr (disbelief) about a non-Muslim or Muslim or to denounce them as disbelievers.

 

Tilawat

Ritual recitation of the Quran

Taqlid

to blindly follow a person whose following is not based on proof and does not rely upon knowledge.

Taqwa

righteousness; goodness

Tarawih

tarawih prayers are extra prayers in Ramadan after the Isha prayer.

Tarbiyah

Cultivation and education

 

Tartil

slow and measured (meditative) recitation of the Qur'an

Tasfiyah

Cleansing and purification

Tashkil

vocalization of a text, for example the Quran

Tawadu

Humility

Tawakkul

Trust in Allah(swt)

Tawbah

repentance

Tawaf

circumambulating the Ka'bah during Hajj.

Taufeeq

 

 

Tawheed

monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of God. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad(saw) as the final Messenger. The opposite of Tawheed is shirk. There are three types of Tawheed

1) Tawheed-ar-Rububiyah - declaring Allah(swt) is one and unique in his work, creation, sustenance and bringing life and death.

2) Tawheed-al-Uluhiyah - declaring that Allah(swt) is the only to whom all acts of worship must be dedicated such as salat(prayer), sawm(fasting),Zakat(charity) etc.

3) Tawheed-al-Asma was-sifaat - declaring all the given names and attributes to Allah(swt) as confirmed in the Quran and Sunnah.

 

Tayyib

all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.

 

U

Ulema or ulama

the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. All those learned in Islam. Singular alim.

 

Ummah or umma

the global community of all Muslim believers; international personhood of Islam

Umrah

the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, umrah can be performed throughout the year.

Urf

custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh

Usul al-Fiqh

the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)

 

Y

Yaqin

certainty, that which is certain

Yaum Al-Qiymah

"Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement

 

 

W

Wahi

revelation or inspiration of Allah(swt) to his prophets(as) for all humankind

Wali

friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper

Warraq

traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier

Wasat

the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation

 

 

Witr

a voluntary, optional night prayer of three rakaat

Wudu

ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat

 

 

Z

 

Zabur

the Psalms revealed to King David

 

 

 

Zakat

tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.

Zuhur

Second prayer in the day which takes place at Midday.

Zalimun

polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.

Zina

sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication)

 

 

 

Inshallah to be extended and improved on a continous basis.