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Prophet of Islam

Prophet Of Islam
Salla lahu Alayhi Wa Ale Hi Wasalam (saw)
Seerah 

The above blessings are recited when mentioning the name of our blessed Prophet; Sayyidina Muhammad (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam). This expression means ‘May blessings and peace be upon him and his family’. 

When mentioning the companions, wives and all family members of the Prophet (saw), the term ‘Hasrat’ is used meaning honourable and the abbreviations ‘Ra’. This is an abbreviation for the Arabic of ‘May Allah be pleased with him/her’. The title of ‘Sayyidina’ is also used, which simply means ‘Master’. 

Please refer to ‘Islamic Glossary & Expressions’.

The Birth  

Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was born in Makka, Arabia in the year 571. He was from the Banu Hashim clan, from the powerful tribe of Quraysh. The tribe of Banu Hashim are the direct descendants of Sayyidina Ibrahim (Alayhi Salaam) thus ensuring that Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was blessed with the best lineage. The Messenger of Allah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, became an orphan at the age of six when his mother Sayyidina Aaminah (Alayhi Salaam), passed away. The Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam father Hasrat Abdullah (Alayhi Salaam), had already passed away before his birth. 

The great Islamic scholar Ibn Kathir (Rh) wrote in his biography of the blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, that in the Prophetic traditions - hadith, there is the mention of miracles and signs when the blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam came into this world. Signs such as when the blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was born, he caused no pain to Sayyidina Aaminah Alayhi Salaam, and a light emerged along with him that lit up the east and west. There are other similar traditions that say when the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam entered the world, he rested upon his knees and raised his head towards the heavens. The sky was illuminated and the house full of light. He then declared the Shahadat, testifying to the Oneness of Allah (swt) and that he was the Messenger of Allah. The palaces in the lands of Syria and Persia shook and the idols placed in the Kaaba in Makka, fell down prostrating saying ‘Allah Ho Akbar’, the Messenger has arrived’.   

Soon after the blessed Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, mother passed away, his guardian and grandfather Abdul Muttalib also passed away. At this point the Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, paternal Uncle; Hasrat Abu Talib became his guardian.   


The Praised One 

The original texts of the Torah and Bible mentioned the coming of the Final Messenger salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam by different names.  In the Torah, he is mentioned as ‘Ahmed’ and in the Gospel he has also been given the same name and been mentioned by Prophet Isa (as) - Jesus, as the ‘comforter‘. The Qur’an has mentioned him as being the Praised One ‘Muhammad’. 

Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was born with Prophethood and the exalted status of being the Leader of all Mankind, therefore he remained as pure and innocent as a new-born child throughout his early life. He never involved himself in any indecent act or in any form of idol worship, which would taint his character. As a boy he was also a shepherd which meant he travelled with animals guiding them, keeping them together with patience and care. In fact many Prophets (Alayhi Salaam) who preceded the final Messenger salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam had also been shepherds 

Bahira

When the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was a young boy aged nine years, he accompanied his Uncle; Abu Talib to Syria as part of a business expedition.

There was a monastery on the way and the monks would never come out of their hub due to their devotion and worship. However as the convoy approached, a monk came out and met them introducing himself as ‘Bahira’. He requested the travellers to be his guests. This was unexpected and very strange but Hasrat Abu Talib accepted the invitation. When the group sat for the meal, the monk asked if there was anyone they had left outside. They informed him they had left a boy outside with the goods. Bahira requested they invite him in at once. The boy was Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. Bahira saw the boy and asked questions about him, asking about his heritage and his guardians. Abu Talib said that this boy was his son. Bahira refused to believe this and Abu Talib explained that he would call him his son but he was really his nephew. Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was in fact an orphan. Bahira accepted this response.
After the food, Bahira approached Abu Talib saying that this boy would be a great Prophet one day and he had read about his coming in previous scriptures. Bahira knew that the Final Messenger would be an orphan this is why he knew that Abu Talib could not be his father. 

Bahira said that when he had seen the caravan in the distance there was a cloud shading them, yet there had been no clouds at all before the caravan arrived. The clouds were shading someone from the great heat of the desert. When the caravan had stopped under a tree the cloud had also stopped above them.
Bahira said that he had seen the stones and the trees prostrating as the convoy passed by meaning they were prostrating to someone in the convoy. Later Bahira noticed the stones and trees prostrating to young Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam as he walked. The shading of the cloud and the stones prostrating are signs mentioned in previous scriptures and is only done for a Prophet of Allah.  He looked at Sayyidina Muhammad’s (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) blessed back and noticed the ‘Seal of the Prophets’, which was an oval shape protruding just below the shoulder blades. He said that this was one of the signs of a great Prophet to come that was taught to them in their books. Bahira said “This is the master of all humans, Allah will send him with a message which would be a mercy to all humans”. Bahira advised that Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam should be taken back to Makkah at once, if the Jews found out about him they would try to kill him. Abu Talib took the advice of this wise old monk and sent his blessed nephew back with some of the guides. 

Even at a young age, the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, became a trustworthy and honest member of society who would resolve disputes and be involved in the welfare of the Makkan community. The people of Makka would address him as being the honest and trustworthy. He was known as ‘Ameen’ and ‘Saadiq’. They were his titles and reflection of his esteemed character.These qualities of honesty and intelligence in trade were observed by a forty year old wealthy business lady; Hasrat Khadija (Ra). Despite her being older than the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, she proposed him for marriage when he was twenty five years old.     


The Revelation 

The blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, was involved in trade with his beloved wife Hasrat Khadija (Ra), and would also spend many days and nights in seclusion in a nearby Mountain cave called Hira. There was something the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was searching for and even before his calling to Islam, he worshiped and would also fast.Then came the night of the first revelation, the dawn of a new and lasting era for Mankind of trial, judgement and redemption. Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, was forty years of age at the time, the year is said to have been ‘610’ and in Mount Hira, an angel came and spoke to Sayyidina Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam with the first revelation ‘IQRA’. This means Read 

The Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam did not read, he was unlettered. He was held forcibly by the angel and pressed so hard that the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam feared for his life. Angel Gabriel (As) pressed the blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam forcibly three times, releasing him after each time and ordering ’IQRA’.After the third time, the angel revealed Allah’s first verses; 

'Read! In the name of your Lord Who has created,
He has created man from a clot,
Read! and your Lord is Most Generous,
Who has taught by the pen,
He has taught man which he knew not.

Surah 96. Al Alaq (1-5)  

The Prophetic traditions narrate that the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, hurried home and as he was rushing back to his wife, he kept seeing Angel Gabriel (As) floating above him. The wisdom of a mature and wise lady such as Hasrat Khadija (Ra) helped the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam become composed and calm. She reminded the blessed Messenger salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, about how he always treats his guests well, takes care of the orphans and needy. He is kind to his kin and looks after the travellers, Allah (swt) would never hurt him. Hasrat Khadija (ra) consulted her very learned relative, who was a Christian called ‘Waraqa’. This person recognised that Sayyidina Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was the Final Messenger, who had come for all of Mankind. He had read the about the signs and also predicted the trials and tribulations that Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam would have to face. Waraqa who was an aged person said that he would probably not live long enough to see the Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, own people throw him out because of his revelations.

Hasrat Khadija (Ra) became the first Muslim and supported the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam. The first male child to accept Islam, was the Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, first cousin; Sayyidina Ali ibn Talib (RA). The first male adult was the dear friend of the Messenger salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam; Sayyidina Abu Bakr (RA) 
  


The Call to Islam  

The revelations began and the first Muslims were Hasrat Khadija (Ra), young cousin Hasrat Ali (Ra) and dear friend Hasrat Abu Bakr (Ra), also the Messenger’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, adopted son; Hasrat Zayd ibn Haritha (Ra).
The first three years of the revelations from years 610 – 613, were revealed and spread by the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam in private, behind closed doors. The followers of Islam began to grow as they recognised the divine message of truth, of how wrong and inhumane their Pagan rituals of idol worshipping and burying daughters alive were. The Message of the Unlettered Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, was an amazing commandment of compassion, morality and patience. The commandment of equality and to uphold the truth, to care for the poor and needy, be kind to parents and maintain ties of kinship. The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam taught submission to the One deity worthy of worship; Allah (swt). The Kalima - La illaha illala Muhammadur Rasulullah is the message of Islam, meaning ’There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.  
 

The time then came for the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam and his faithful followers to be tested facing extreme forces of opposition and hostilities. Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was commanded to announce the message of Islam openly and call the idol worshippers to the truth. The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam openly declared his Prophethood standing on Mount Safa, speaking of the Oneness of Allah (swt), proclaiming the religion of Islam and warning of the defeat of all enemies of the truth. The powerful leaders of Makka, who had inherited the Idols that they worshipped from their ancestors and used these rituals as a means of attracting trade and making profit, began to oppose this message of Allah (swt).At first the leaders of the most powerful clan in Makka, who were the ‘Quraysh’ and to whom the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam also belonged, were unconcerned with this message of Islam. However as Islam began to effect the hearts of people, the panic set in amongst the ‘Quraysh’ dynasty as they saw a threat to their way of life. Even the members of the Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam family became his enemies and they needed to find a way to supress this revolution. The Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, dear Uncle; Hasrat Abu Talib remained a faithful supporter and defender of the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, without ever openly accepting Islam. However his support for his nephew meant that the other members of the Quraysh clan, such as Amr Ibn Hashim or later known as Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab and Abu Sufyan could not dare to touch or harm the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam. At this time there were proposals offered to the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam to give up his message, such proposals of wealth, position and power that may have weakened any other person. The corrupt leaders of Quraysh sent Abu Talib with offers for the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, offering him any amount of wealth, the hand of any lady in Arabia and even the keys to Makka, which meant complete leadership in exchange for his abandonment of this Message.As the very concerned uncle of the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam reached the house of his nephew, warning him of the danger he was in and putting forward the lucrative offers of wealth, power and women, there was only one answer. Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam responded with his message of complete submission to Allah (swt) and his Prophethood. The blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam continued saying even if ‘The Sun was put in his right hand and the moon in his left hand, he will not withdraw his Message of Islam’. 

All attempts had failed to supress this Message of truth, peace and submission to Allah (swt). Even proposals were made by which Islam would be allowed to be practiced in one year, and the following year Idol worship would continue. This way both religions would be accepted and practiced in alternative years. Lets remember that the Pagans who practiced worshipping man made Idols, also believed in God but they had a corrupt form of belief that involved statues and mini-gods that need to be pleased and served. Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam had brought the ’Qur’an’, a divine Message and declaration of One Deity that had to be worshipped with no other. The Message of Islam was a perfect one, which also included the belief in the Prophethood of Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, the chosen Final Messenger and the one who had come to purify the believers as was the supplication of Sayyidina Ibrahim Alayhi Salaam when building the Kaaba. These beliefs cannot be compromised and therefore the proposals of the Quraysh leaders were rejected. The hostilities and violence became the next stage and effort adopted by the enemies of Islam. As men and women accepted the Message of Divinity, and slaves such as Hasrat Bilal bin Rabah (Ra) also accepted Islam, were severely tortured. The tremendous endurance of the Abyssinian slave Bilal (ra) epitomised the strength of faith, as he was made to lie down on burning sand at mid-day with a heavy stone on his chest. He still exclaimed the message of ‘Allah Ho Ahad - Allah is Alone’. Even when the torture and punishment was not enough to stop the followers of Islam, the Muslims began losing their lives for their beliefs. The first martyrs in Islam were the family of a blessed companion; Hasrat Ammaar (Ra). His blessed mother ’Hasrat Sumayya‘(ra) became the first to be martyred in the cause of Islam.  

The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam became saddened at the loss of the lives of his beloved followers, and ordered a group to emigrate to Abyssinia. In the year 615, two groups of Muslims emigrated to find refuge. The state of Abyssinia was a Christian one, and its emperor; Negus was sympathetic to the Muslim beliefs. Despite attempts by the Quraysh to have them returned, Negus offered them protection and security.The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam stayed in Makka and continued preaching his Message of Islam. He continued facing hostility and hardships, and showed the example of how the truthful never have fear in the face of tyranny. The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam taught his followers the duty to always speak the truth in front of the tyrant, and only fear Allah (swt). The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam was blessed with great companions, such as his wife Hasrat Khadija (ra) and dear friend Hasrat Abu Bakr (ra). They were wise and committed to Islam, the courage of the Prophet’s salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam cousin; Hasrat Ali (ra) was an example of passion and valour. At this time the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam received great support from his young uncle Hasrat Hamza (ra), who accepted Islam and became a great defender of the faith. In fact Hasrat Hamza (ra) was feared by the Quraysh, and discouraged their further attacks.  In the year 616, a great enemy became a long-term force of Islam. His name was Umar bin Khattab (ra). The Prophetic traditions reveal that Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam would pray to Allah (swt) ‘Give me Umar’, meaning for Umar to join Islam and strengthen the Muslims. A treaty was also drawn up by the leaders of Quraysh, meant they boycotted all trade and contact with the family and supporters of Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam. This treaty was stuck on the wall of the Kaaba, which at that time housed their many idols. A miracle occurred however, as ants ate up this treaty, with only the word ‘Allah’ left on the wall. Therefore the people of Makka withdrew this agreement and abandoned the boycott.  


Patience and Prayer 

The testing times in Makka did not ease but the Message of Islam continued to spread through the faith, patience and courage bestowed on Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam. His Prophethood inspired all his followers to remain steadfast and patient. The revelations of the Qur’an inspired the believers with the promise of Al Jannah - Paradise. 

In the years 619-620, the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam suffered great loss. The passing of his supporting wife Hasrat Khadija (ra) left him without his closest companion and then his Uncle; Hasrat Abu Talib also passed away. The loss of Abu Talib meant that the Quraysh leaders could now attack the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam without fear of his influential uncle. As the hostilities grew in Makka, the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam decided to visit nearby lands in an effort to gather support for Islam and make allies. The Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam along with his adopted son Hasrat Zayd bin Harith visited Taif. This was a city approximately sixty miles from his homeland. The people of Taif were dismissive of the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam and his Message, and they afflicted him with torment. The most difficult day occurred for the noblest of Prophets, the one chosen to give glad tidings to Mankind and speak the words of our Creator. In Taif, the people began to insult the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam in the streets, hooting and cursing as they pelted stones. The children tied a scarf around his blessed neck and dragged him through the streets, as the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam left, he was covered in his own blood, which ran down to his blessed feet. The blessed Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam never cursed these people. Allah (swt) send Angel Gabriel (as) to console the Messenger salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, also informing him if he so wished the mountains either side of Taif would be brought together and these people would be crushed. However the Prophet of Mercy salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam who was sent as ‘Rahmat’il Alameen’, a Mercy onto the Worlds, still prayed for the people of Taif, knowing that if not them, but their children would one day accept Islam.   


The Journey 

This was perhaps the most difficult time in the life of Prophet Muhammad salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam. He had lost so much and suffered at the hands of the people who continued to reject the call to Islam. It was then that a miracle was given to the most beloved and cherished of all creation. A journey that became known as the Isra & Miraaj.
In the Prophetic traditions, the journey is detailed with the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam, being visited by Angel Gabriel (AS) one night as he slept. The blessed angel told the Prophet salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam of a journey that had been ordered by Allah (swt) only for him. A beast from the heavens was summoned called the Buraaq, a unicorn which travelled at the speed of light and it’s every step covered the distance that its eye could see. This animal from Paradise took the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam from Makka to Jerusalem. The Kaaba was in Makka, the House of Allah (swt) that has been built and preserved by the Prophets (AS) throughout time. Even though the Pagans now used the Kaaba as the house for their idols, it was still the house of worship for the believers in Islamic Monotheism. In Jerusalem was the first Qibla, the direction to where Muslims were first ordered to pray. This place of worship was Masjid Al-Aqsa.

Prophet Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was taken at the speed of light from Makka to Jerusalem, to offer prayer. This part of the journey is known as ‘Isra’. This was the night when Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, the Prophet of Mankind would lead all the other Prophets (AS) in prayer, who had preceded him. A unique honour to signify the status of the Praised One - Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. The Final Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was the first to be created in his light – Nur. This blessed light was created before everything else and worshipped Allah (swt) for two thousand years before the creation of Sayyidina Adam (As). However Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was to be sent as the Final Messenger, the Seal of the Prophets and giver of the Divine Message. Therefore all the Prophets (AS) of Allah (swt) were sent before the coming of Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. In the Noble Qur’aan, Allah (swt) made a pact with all the Prophets (AS) that He would grant them the Message and the Wisdom and in return they must vow to believe in the Final Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and follow him. If Sayyidina Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was to come in their lifetime then they would no longer be the Messenger of their time and instead would become the follower of Sayyidina Muhammad ur’Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. Ofcourse Allah (swt) was not going to send the Final Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam until the end of the divine message however this pact mentioned in Al’Qur’aan was to signify the status and rank of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, who is the first to be created and the final Messenger to be sent. In the blessed sanctuary of Masjid Al Aqsa, the adhaan – call to prayer was given by Angel Jibrail (As). Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam led all the Prophets (AS) in prayer. Then from the ‘Dome of the Rock’, in the courtyard of Al Aqsa, the Journey of Ascent known as the ‘Miraaj’ took place. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was taken up through the heavens, to witness in his lifetime what no other had ever seen. The blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam saw the beauty of the heavens and many miracles as well as witnessing the trials of the hellfire. He met the blessed Ambiya (As) – Prophets  as he ascended through the heavens until he reached the point from where no-one had gone further. This is ‘Sidra t’ul Muntaha’. At this point Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam ascended alone as even Angel Jibrail (As) informed him that if he went further he would burn due to the Tremendous Light of Allah (SWT). Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was in the presence of his Creator, the Majestic and Omnipotent, the Lord of all the Worlds; Allah (Subhan hu wa t’Ala).On this night the five daily prayers were gifted to the believers, a gift of mercy passed onto Sayyyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam to be given to Mankind.   



The Hijra 622 

The tribes in Makka had decided to plan and carry out the assassination of the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. They believed this was the only solution to ending the rise of Islam. As the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam belonged to a very influential clan, the chiefs planned the assassination to be carried out by one person from all the clans in Makka. This way no clan would be solely blamed for this act. At this time, the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam had received good news from a nearby city north of Makka, called ‘Yathrib’. Many people from this city had visited Makka for Pilgrimage in accordance with their faith and had secretly accepted Islam. This acceptance had been followed by the pledge of loyalty to Islam and to the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. These pledges are referred to the two covenants of Al-Aqabah. They invited the persecuted Muslims to come to their land. Muslims had already begun leaving Makka but the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam could not migrate until he received the Command of Allah (swt).

The night of the planned attack, the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was ordered by Allah (swt) to migrate and leave Makka. The blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam only acted according to divine revelation and inspiration from Allah (swt). The blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam prepared to leave Makka along with his closest companion Hasrat Abu Bakr Siddique (Ra). In the blessed bed of the Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam lay his cousin Hasrat Ali ibn Talib (ra) waiting for the attackers. When the attackers pulled back the sheet, they found Hasrat Ali ibn Talib (ra) instead of the Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi wasallam.
This was a landmark night in Islam called the ‘Hijra’ – Migration.  This is the point of the commencement of the Islamic calendar, a new era. (All dates in the Islamic calendar refer to AH. This stands for ‘After Hijri’).  

The migration came after thirteen years of preaching Islam in Makka and as Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasalam stood and saw his city while departing, he told Makka that ‘I would never have left you but this is the Order of Allah (swt)’. The chiefs of Quraysh sent horsemen to find the Prophet Salla Lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and his faithful companion Sayyidina Abu Bakr (ra) found refuge inside a cave. This cave is known as ‘Thaur’. The pursuers came so close, and as Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddique (Ra) asked the question of how they will dodge so many people, the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam responded that ‘Allah (swt) is with us’. This was a great honour for Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddique (Ra) as he is mentioned in the Noble Qur’aan as being the ‘companion of the cave’ and the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam mentions them together stating ‘Allah is with us’. At the opening of the cave, a spider made a web that deceived the pursuers into believing that no-one entered the cave as the web remained unbroken. 

Sayyidina Rasululah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and his faithful companion arrived at Yathrib amongst huge celebrations and joy. The people rejoiced with love and warmth knowing that the Prophet of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) was amongst them.This city of Yathrib became known as Medina Munnawwarah – The illuminated blessed city. This was because when the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam entered this city it became illuminated, there was a presence of light that came with the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam). This was not just a spiritual light but it was an actual physical light. The name of the city was changed to Medina and this is where the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and his Companions began building his Masjid, to be known as Masjid-e-Nabi - Mosque of the Prophet. Although the first mosque of Islam is Masjid-e-Quba, where the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam stopped and prayed before reaching Medina Munnawwarah. Masjid-e-Nabi was built by all the Companions (Ra) and the locals of Medina, who are referred to as the Ansaar - friends. The beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam himself participated in the labour demonstrating his humility and modesty. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was the leader of all Mankind, the bringer of the universal Message but chose to live like others in simplicity and forbade being treated like a King or leader.  Then the question arose of how the people would be gathered to pray the five times Salaat - Prayer. There are different Prophetic traditions as to who actually had a dream about the ’Call to Prayer’ but it was from this inspiration that the adhaan started to be used. The decision was that a chosen Muazzin- caller, would announce the call at the prayer times. This Muazzin was to be Hasrat Bilal (Ra). He was said to have the greatest voice and therefore the man worthy of this honour. The Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was delighted at giving this honour to Sayyidina Bilal (ra) as he endured so much for Islam when being placed on burning sand. Even in pain and suffering at the hands of the Idolaters, his voice was not silenced and continued to declare the Oneness of Allah (swt). To become the first ‘Caller of Prayer’, he was rewarded for his patience.

According to historical sources, this was about the time when the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam married Sayyidina Ayeshaa Siddique (ra), the daughter of his closest companion Hasrat Abu Bakr Siddique (Ra). This marriage was another important step in the life of the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam), as Sayyidina Ayeshaa (Rayidhallahu Anha) became a great learned scholar of Islam, who was very close to the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. Sayyidina Ayeshaa Siddique (Ra) was much younger then the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) as this was essential. Being younger it gave Sayyidina Ayeshaa (Ra) the opportunity to learn more from the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) and be able to continue the education of others after the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) would depart. Similarly, there was great wisdom in the first blessed wife of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi wasallam being Sayyidina Khadijah (Ra), who was much older than Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam at the time. When the revelations began, the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam needed an older companion who would have the maturity and experience of knowing how to support and at times console the Messenger of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam).  

Sayyidina Ayeshaa Siddique (Ra) observed every aspect of the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’alehi wasallam) very closely and in fact she narrated over 2,000 authentic traditions - hadith.   


The Great Battles 

Following the Hijra - migration, the first Islamic state of Medina Munnawwarah was established. The city of Medina became a living example of the Qur’an and Sunnah. Prophet Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam became the head of state, the Imam - religious leader of this community, which was actually the beginning of the greater Ummah - Muslim nation.

The beginning of a recognised Islamic state also presented a clear defined target for the powerful state of Makka. There were many treaties being signed and agreed against the Muslim nation by the tribe of Quraysh and other establishments. Even in the city of Medina, there were people who opposed the religion of Islam and despite pretences of accepting this faith, were actually plotting to damage from within. These people were known as the ‘Munafiqeen’, the hypocrites. A landmark then approached in the year 624 when the Muslim state claimed a great victory. 

Battle of Badr yr 624 

The teachings of the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam had been of peace and harmony even in the face of terror and torment. The way of Islam is to look for peaceful route to all solutions but not live in fear of any man or situation. When the news came that the tribes of Quraysh were plotting to take the belongings and possessions left behind in Makka by the Muslims and sell them to nearby cities, action had to be taken. The tribes of Quraysh were arrogant in their might and would then assemble an army to attack the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. In fact the caravans taking the belongings would pass by Medina just to show the weakness of the Muslim state.

The great warriors of Islam being men like Hasrat Hamzah (ra) who was named Asadullah - The Lion of Allah, and Hasrat Ali ibn Talib (Ra) along with Hasrat Umar Farooq (ra), all pleaded to the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam to allow the Muslims to defend their honour and in the process show the tribe of Quraysh that any attacks will be met by force. However the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam did not act upon his own intuition and only listened to inspiration from Allah (swt).

The time had now come when Allah (swt) ordered the believers to partake in Jihaad, the struggle on the battlefield. The believers were to defend the welfare of Islam but only with the condition that righteousness will be upheld. Even in battle the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam commanded that humanity towards the enemies be observed. The conditions of battle were that the Muslim warriors - Mujahideen would only attack the soldiers carrying a weapon, meaning striking an unarmed man would be forbidden. The blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam did not allow any woman or child to be attacked or any man working in a field (not fighting). Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam came as a Mercy onto the Worlds – ‘Rahmat al lil Alameen’. The Messenger of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam) came only as a Mercy, he was a mercy for the believers as he brought them glad tidings and purified them, he was a mercy for the hypocrites as he gave them security even though they plotted against him and he was also a mercy for the non-believers as he prevented their punishment. Allah (swt) had annihilated previous generations and communities of previous Prophets (AS) but the people in the time of the Messenger of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam) remained secure because of the mercy he brought them.

During battle, the blessed Prophet (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam) also ordered that even the nature of Allah (swt) be preserved, no soldier would cut down a tree whilst fighting. 
The Prophet of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) accompanied by just 313 soldiers marched to a place called Badr. This place was approximately eighty five miles south west of Medina Munnawwarah. The plan was to stop the caravan as it passed the town of Badr. However the news of the Islamic resistance had reached the Quraysh chiefs and Abu Sufyan brought a strong army of 950 soldiers to crush this resistance.  The odds were mounted against the small Muslim army, facing an army three times in size and better equipped, the time had come to put faith in the promise of Allah (swt) and fight to the death. The ‘Battle of Badr’ gave the Muslims their most famous victory on the battlefield, led by the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam overcoming the great army in front of them and losing very little in return. The Qur’an has also made references to the victory at Badr, which showed the enemies of Islam that the belief in Allah (swt) is sufficient to defeat any army. As the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam with the believers fought in Badr, the angels also descended to join the army of Allah (swt). The army that emerged victorious on that day included the blessed Prophet; Sayyidina Muhammad’ur Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi wasallam, the greatest of all Prophets, it included the Angels (As) descending from the heavens, the truthful followers; Hasrat Abu Bakr Siddique (ra), Hasrat Umar Farooq (ra) whose name struck fear in the hearts of non-believers, the cousin of the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam; Sayyidina Ali ibn Talib (ra) who carried the two blade sword - the dhulfiqar and had the strength of seven men, also included the lion of Allah (swt); Hasrat Hamzah (ra) along with the other great Companions (Ra) and Ansaar (Ra). This Army of Allah (swt) – Hizbullah, the like of which had never been assembled before could never have been defeated by the Grace and Might of Allah (swt). The victorious Muslims shared the war-booty equally and took the prisoners of war back to Medina Munnawwarah. The justice of Islam was unprecedented in the Arab land, not only were the fighting Muslims not allowed to attack an already fallen enemy but were told to take the injured enemy soldiers to safety. The prisoners of war were also cared for under the supervision of the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. This included treating any injuries and also feeding them and clothing them.
The Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and the Companions (Ra) were not rich people, in fact they would often be without food for many days. However they gathered whatever food they had and fed their prisoners, who were now guests of Medina Munnawwarah. The Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam while waiting for offers of the ransom money from Makkah to release them, requested that the learned and educated people amongst them could be released without any price as long as they taught the people of Medina Munnawwarah to read and write. This was agreed and the uneducated people of Medina Munnawwarah benefited from their prisoners. The captives were eventually released but had already submitted to the truth. These people saw the way of the blessed Prophet of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam), who had treated even his defeated enemies as guests and friends. This experience opened their eyes to the truth of Islam, they had now spent time with people who were not selfish or arrogant but humble and God-fearing. They had already seen the miracle of how the small ill-equipped Muslim army defeated the Quraysh force.
 This time brought new found respect for the Muslim state by their neighbours and much happiness and relief for the Muslim faithful.

The same year of Badr, also brought a revelation to the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam to change the Qibla. The Qibla is the direction of prayer and at that time the Muslims faced the sacred Mosque of Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. As the Jewish community also had roots in Jerusalem they started to claim that the Muslims were linked to their faith of Judaism. So when the revelation came from the Qur’an to change the direction of prayer from Al-Aqsa to the Kaaba in Makka, it showed the Jewish community that Islam exists as the complete and only religion. The Muslims do not imitate any other people or even be seen to be like others. When Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam arrived in Medina Munnawwarah, he observed the people of Bani Israel fasting on the 10th Muharram to celebrate the victory of Sayyidina Musa Alayhi Salaam over Firaun. The Messenger of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam) said that ‘We should fast on this day as we have more right over Sayyidina Musa Alayhi Salaam then the people of Israel’. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam ordered the believers to fast on the 10th of Muharram and also the 9th, or on the 10th and on the 11th. This way the believers would not be imitating the Jewish people, by fasting two days while they only fast on the one day, the Muslims would be better than them.
 The beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam gave his dear daughter Sayyidina Fatima az’Zahra (Radiyalla Anha), in marriage to his faithful cousin Sayyidina Ali ibn Talib (ra). 

The Battle of Uhud yr 625 

After the defeat at Badr, the leader of Quraysh, Abu Sufyan had fled from the battlefield. He was shocked at the defeat and also of losing a close ally in Abu Jahl in the process. Abu Sufyan’s wife grieved uncontrollably as her father and brother had both been killed by Hasrat Hamza (ra). Abu Sufyan understood the merits of the Islamic victory and therefore would not under-estimate the Muslim might again. He united the armies of other tribes, who also viewed the rise of Islam and this new way of life as a threat. As the preparations for a second attack were being finalised, the Uncle of the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam; Hasrat Abbas (ra) who lived in Makka sent a message to his nephew warning him of this danger. The blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam assembled an army and waited at a mountain called Uhud, approximately three miles outside of Medina. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was a great leader and General who understood the strategies of combat. He was unsure of the size of the Quraysh army and given that they were going to do battle on a mountain, knew the dangers of being attacked by a second army who were out of sight. The beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam instructed a group to remain at the top of the mountain and keep watch, and stay there until further command. Abu Sufyan leading an army of about 3,000 faced the Muslims who were once again outnumbered as they only had approximately 700 mujahideen. The great battle of Uhud was brutal as the Muslims fought with even more vigour and passion to defeat even greater odds. However this turned out to be a great test of courage and faith as the Muslims campaign at Uhud took an unexpected turn. The army of Abu Sufyan were being pushed back and as their army began to disperse, the Muslims sensed victory. The group who had been placed on the Mountain top feeling that their side had won, ignored the instruction to wait until further command and deserted their position. They joined the Muslim army anticipating the celebrations, when the army of Khalid bin Waleed emerged from behind. Just as the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) had feared due to the lack of visibility on the Uhud top, an ambush could happen. Khalid bin Waleed (who later accepted Islam) was a courageous and experienced general, who was also an enemy of Islam. He ambushed the Muslim army inflicting heavy losses on them, further chaos ensued as the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi wa’ale Hi Wasallam himself was struck and suffered injury. At this time the cry was heard that the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) had been martyred and that he was no more. The narrations confirm that even the blessed women ran towards the battlefield of Uhud to fight and be martyred. The blessed companions men and women (Ra) said that they could smell the scent of Paradise from Uhud.   The blessed Messenger of Allah Sala lahu Alayhi wa’ale Hi Wasallam was struck and his helmet, which had steel rings pierced the blessed face of the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. The companions rushed to the Messenger of Allah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, from one side came Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddique (Ra) ant the other Hasrat Abu Ubaida (Ra). The blessed Companions (Radiyallahu Anhum) always displayed their tremendous love and respect the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam).Hasrat Abu Ubaida (Ra) did not pull the metal rings from the blessed face of the Messenger of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam) using his hands as this would be dis-respectful, he instead used his own teeth to pull out the rings. For each ring he pulled out, he lost one tooth. As the blessed blood flowed from the wounds of the blessed Messenger Salls lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, the companion; Hasrat Malik ibn Sanan (Ra) came and drank the blessed blood of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi wasallam. These were the companions (Ra) afterall who would not even let a drop of water from the Wudu – ablution of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam fall onto the ground after touching his blessed body.  As the blessed blood of the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) was mixed in with the blood of Hasrat Malik ibn Sanan (Radiyallahu Anhu) he was granted Paradise. The Muslims withdrew from the battlefield with the loss of the great Uncle of the Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi wa’ale Hi Wasallam. Hasrat Abu Humza (Ra) was martyred in the battle, the greatest martyr perhaps in Islamic history. He was the blessed uncle of the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and one of the greatest companions. He had been martyred in Uhud and his body mutated by the enemies, the wife of Abu Sufyan had even cut open his chest and eaten his heart. The battle of Uhud has since become as legendary a symbol of Martyrdom and sacrifice as the victory of Badr was a symbol of belief and faith.   

The Battle of Khandaq yr 627 


This was a period when the Islamic state of Medina Munnawwarah were facing new challenges and threats from outside and within. The Blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam had allowed the people of Medina Munawwarah to live with peace and security even if they were practicing a different faith. However he had learnt of many traitors and hypocrites who had faked their allegiance to him. The Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam would expel these people, only for them to go to Makka and disclose important information about the Islamic state. Abu Sufyan who was encouraged by events at Uhud began to assemble the greatest coalition against the Islamic state. It is said that an army of 10,000 marched to attack Medina Munnawwarah. Fighting such an army through conventional means was unrealistic so the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was advised of a strategy to dig a large trench around Medina Munnawwarah in order to protect the city. The enemies would find it difficult to cross this trench and while doing so, the Muslim army would attack them from within the city. This strategy was advised by Hasrat Salman Farasi (ra), a great companion.The Muslimeen once again put complete faith in the decree of Allah (swt) and that victory will be theirs, and began this unique feat. When the coalition arrived and saw this great trench it caused confusion and delayed their advancement. This ‘battle of the trench’ is also called battle of Ahzab, referring to the tribes of Ahzab that were united in this attack. Any attempts from the Quraysh coalition were futile, as they were not able to cross the trench and were also attacked by the arrows of the Mujahideen. The Quraysh army camped outside in an attempt to force the Muslims in surrendering, hoping that their food supplies would finish. Allah (swt) then brought His Infinite Mercy to His beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and his followers, as the weather became unbearable for the camping army. Great winds forced the Quraysh coalition back and finally after two weeks of the siege the attack was withdrawn.  


The Pact of Hudaibiyah yr 628 

The Pilgrimage to Makka had now become obligatory on the Muslim Ummah. The holy Kaaba had been re-built and established as the House of Allah (swt) - Baitullah by the Prophet Ibrahim (as) - Abraham and his son Prophet Ismael (as).  Since the time of the religion of Prophet Ibrahim (as) the pagan rituals had re-emerged but this house of God still remained sacred. This is why the idol worshippers would have their own pilgrimage. The Kaaba was now the place of worship for the believers and the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was commanded by Allah (swt) to embark on the first Pilgrimage. 

The Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) departed with the first ever pilgrims of Islam towards Makka, despite the hostilities. The pilgrims were ordered to be un-armed except for the travellers’ swords, which were customary. The blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam stopped at a place outside Makka called ‘Hudaibiyah’, from where he sent his blessed companion Hasrat Usman Ghani (Ra) as an ambassador of peace to Makkah. Their mission was only to perform the pilgrimage and then they would leave. The blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam with the pilgrims waited for days at Hudaibiyah, but then rumours began to spread that Hasrat Usman ibn Affan (ra) had been martyred. On hearing this the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam asked his companions (ra) to swear their allegiance to him and agree to avenge the martyrdom of their faithful companion Hasrat Usman (ra). This pledge has also been mentioned in the Qur’an as the sacred moment when Allah (swt) had accepted their pledge to the beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam as being a pledge to Allah (swt). However it was later discovered that Hasrat Usman Ghani (ra) was fine and well. Once again the love of the companions (Ra) could be seen for the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) as the Quraysh offered Hasrat Usman Ghani (Ra) a chance to perform the pilgrimage now as he was already in the city. He refused this, informing them that he does not wish to perform this ritual without his blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, and he would wait until the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) is given access.

The tribe of Quraysh sent their own representative who would negotiate a pact between them. This ‘Pact of Hudaibiyah’ would end the bloodshed between the two sides but also was unfavourable to the Muslim Ummah. This pact demanded that the Muslims return to Medina Munnawwarah now but could perform the Pilgrimage in the following years. The treaty also favoured the Quraysh in stating that any people who fled from Makka to Medina would have to be returned, whereas any that fled from Medina to Makkah would be granted immunity. This treaty also enforced the condition that both sides could sign pacts with any other party and remain neutral if they went to war with a third party. The Hudaibiyah pact would remain for ten years in which the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and his followers had access to Makka and the Quraysh could cross through Muslim territory. When this pact was to be signed, the representative of Quraysh did not allow Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam to sign ’Rasulallah’ - Prophet of Allah on the agreement. The Quraysh delegate argued that if they allowed the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam to state this then there would be no reason for their differences. This arrogance angered the companions (Ra) who felt that they were being degraded. However the blessed Messenger of Allah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam agreed even to this condition. Sayyidina Rasululah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was the most diplomatic and understood what benefited his Message and his Ummah. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam consoled the other pilgrims who were devastated, with the joyous news of a wahi - revelation. The Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) told them that Allah (swt) had granted them a great victory. The companions (Ra) may not have understood this but had complete faith in Allah’s (swt) decree and the Prophethood of Rasulallah Salla lahu alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam.
     

This pact of peace signalled important times for Islam. The Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) now increased the work of spreading his message of Islam with the Quraysh threat removed. This included the sending of companions (Ra)) to the other rulers of Arabia that included the Roman emperor and rulers of Syria and Egypt. Also the freedom of people to visit Medina from Makkah and vice versa had allowed the invitation - daw’ah of Islam to be given on a greater scale. The awareness increased and now many more people were accepting the way of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam.     


The Fall of Makkah yr 630 

In the year 629, conditions of the Hudaibiyah treaty were violated by a Quraysh convoy. They attacked a group of Muslim people while they slept. Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam demanded compensation for the killings and for the Quraysh clan to withdraw support for those responsible. The other alternative was that the Quraysh clan declare the pact between the two sides as void. This is what the leaders of Quraysh decided to do.The following year, which was the eighth year of Hijrah, powerful figures from Makkah accepted Islam. Hasrat Khalid bin Waleed (ra) and Hasrat Amr Ibnul Aas (ra) both accepted Islam, as well as the fierce enemy Abu Sufyan. The Messenger of Allah (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam) was now commanded by Allah (swt) to reclaim the House of Allah (swt) and return home.      

The greatest army in Islamic history advanced towards Makka, led by the leader of Mankind; Prophet Muhammad (Salla lahu alayi Wa Ale Hi Wasallam). The great victory that had been promised to the believers by the Almighty Allah (swt) was now being seen by the whole of Arabia. There was no resistance from anybody in Makka as they understood that resisting would be futile. Abu Sufyan who had the keys to Makka effectively, had himself pledged his allegiance to the Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam). Even as the most noble Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam entered the sacred city, where he had faced so much torment and been forced to leave, he remained composed and was so humble that his eyes were completely lowered out of humility. In the history of Mankind, never has there been such a great conquest where not even a drop of blood was spilt. The sanctuary of Makka was preserved where no fighting is permitted. The people of Makka surrendered in peace and the Muslim army were ordered not to seek any retribution. Throughout the life - Seerah of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, there has always been undeniable evidence that he is the Mercy onto Mankind, as declared in the Glorious Qur’an. When the pagans stood in front of the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, who had been a victim of their hatred and abuse and who had also seen his family (ra) and companions (ra) suffer at their hands, they asked what would now happen to them? The blessed Messenger (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) responded by asking them what they expected from him? Those criminals replied that they only expect what they have always seen from the Prophet Salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi Wasallam and that is his Mercy. Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam forgave the people of Makka saying that on this sacred day of victory and celebrations in the name of Allah (swt) everyone is forgiven. The blessed companion Hasrat Bilal (ra) who was Islam’s first muazzin - caller to prayer, climbed on top of the Kaaba and give the azaan - Call to Prayer. This was after the idols in the Kaaba were thrown out in the street and the House of God - Baitullah was restored as the place of worship for the believers in the Oneness of Allah (swt), as first declared by Prophet Ibrahim (Alayhi Salaam).    


The Passing of the Prophet (saw) yr 632 

The following year Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam returned to his home in Medina Munnawwarah. This is where he continued his life and became the great leader of Arabia. Many conquests and allegiance followed as Islam spread throughout the land and the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was said to have been informed by Allah (swt) that the time for his own departure had arrived.Shortly after the Farewell Pilgrimage where the blessed Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) had indicated to the Pilgrims that he would not be with them for much longer, he fell ill. Many narrations confirm that the illness had been a result of an earlier incident where a Jewish lady had put poison in the Prophet’s Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam food. Allah (swt) knows best. 

Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam passed away in the house of Sayyidina Ayeshaa (ra) who was his dearest wife. The house was next to the Masjid -e- Nabi - Prophet’s Mosque (Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam). These news shocked the people of Medina and the beloved companions (ra) were devastated. Hasrat Umar Farooq (ra) was said to have fainted in shock on the news, such was the love he had. Many believers still had the mis-conception that Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam would never leave but the closest companion Hasrat Abu Bakr Siddique (ra) recited the verses from the Qur’an; 

‘Muhammad is a messenger, messengers have passed away before him. Will it be that, when he dies or is slain, you will turn back on your heels? He who turn back do not hurt Allah and Allah will reward the thankful’. (3,144) 

Hasrat Abu Bakr Siddique (Ra) reminded the believers that Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam had to depart but their faith in Allah (swt) is forever as the Almighty Allah (swt) is the Ever-living. Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam - May Peace and Blessings be upon him and his family was buried in exactly the same place as he passed away. The house of his dear wife and companion Sayyidina Ayeshaa Siddique (ra), the mother of the believers has since been included within the boundaries of the Prophet’s Mosque. The blessed shrine of the beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, which is called the Roza Mubarak, meaning the ‘Blessed Place’ has now been enclosed in an area, which is out of sight for the pilgrims. The place is now behind a large gold grid, which is recognised from afar because it is directly under the famous green dome of the Mosque.  

Sayyidina Rasulullah’s blessed Mosque, the Masjid-e-Nabi remains the most blessed Mosque even before the Masjid - e- Haram, which encloses the Kaaba in Makka. However Masjid-e-Haram is the most sacred due to the House of Allah (swt). The legacy of the beloved Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam remained with each and every companion as they continued the success of spreading Islam through the Caliphate, beginning with the leadership of Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddique (Radiyallahu Anhu).  Rasulullah’s Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam blessed wife; Sayyidina Ayeshaa Siddique (ra) had reserved her place of burial with the blessed Messenger Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and next to her father Hasrat Abu Bakr Siddique (ra) who was buried alongside the blessed Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa;ale Hi Wasallam. However she gave up this place and great honour when Sayyidina Umar ibn Khattab (ra), who became the second Calipha, requested that she give him this honour of being buried with the beloved Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam and the great Siddique - truthful companion (ra). The effects of the passing of Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam was felt instantly on the Companions (Ra). They said that they could feel a difference in their spiritual state and in their hearts. This does not mean that they did not remain faithful to the religion of Islam as they were the best of generations.   

The Messenger of Allah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam said, ‘If one of you is afflicted with a calamity, then let him remember his calamity by me (i.e., by my passing); for indeed, it is the greatest of calamities and your calamity will seem insignificant in comparison."


The Legacy of the Prophet Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam
 

Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam left a continuing legacy as his Sunnah - Way is to be followed alongside the Words of Allah (swt) - The Noble Qur’an. The Messenger of Allah (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) led Mankind in all aspects of existence whether it is worship, family life or political rule. Whenever we need to understand the Commands of our Creator; Allah (swt) and seek the way most pleasing to Him, we only need to refer to the way and life of the mercy and blessings unto mankind; the Master of the children of Adam Alayhi Salaam; Sayyidina Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. 

The demise of the Muslim Ummah is not because they have deserted the belief in the Oneness of Allah (swt) or that they are weak in number but it is because they have abandoned the teachings and way of Allah’s (swt) most beloved and elevated Prophet and Messenger;  Sayyidina Muhammad Imam ul’ Ambiya Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam. All Muslims and Non-Muslims are requested to study the numerous biographies compiled on Sayyidina Muhammad ur’Rasulullah Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam, who is the perfection in created form, character and all aspects of intrinsic and extrinsic existence.

These biographies are referred to as the ‘Seerah’.
 


Zulfiqar Raja. 


A Chronology of Prophet Muhammad’s (salla lahu alayhi wa’ale hi wasallam) life.
    

569: Birth of the Holy Prophet (saw). The Year of many miracles, which is also called ‘Year of  the Elephant’. As this year the Kaaba was attacked by an army who came riding elephants, they retreated due to divine intervention that saw birds drop stones on the army from above. 


577:   Death of Sayyidina Aaminah (as) the mother of the Prophet (saw).  

580:   Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet (saw).  

583:  The Holy Prophet's (saw) journey to Syria in the company of his Uncle Abu Talib. His           
        meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who foretells of his Prophethood. 
 

591:   The Holy Prophet (saw) becomes an active member of "Hilful Fudul", a league for the relief          of the distressed.  

594:   The Holy Prophet (saw) becomes the Manager of the business of Hasrat Khadija (ra), and          leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.  

595:   The Holy Prophet (saw) marries Hasrat Khadija (ra).   

605:  The Holy Prophet (saw) arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the           Black Stone in the Kaaba.  

610:  The first revelation of the Qur’an in the cave at Mount Hira. The Holy Prophet (saw) is           made aware of his Prophethood and that he is the Final Messenger of God.  

613:  The open declaration of Prophethood at Mt. Sara and inviting the general public to Islam.

614:  Invitation by the Prophet (saw) to his own clan, the Hashim clan to accept Islam.  

615:  Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.  

616:  Second Hijrah to Abyssinia.  

617:  Social boycott of the Holy Prophet (saw) and the Hashim family by the Quraish. They are          forced just outside Makkah. The boycott stayed for two years. 

619:  Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija (ra). This has often been called the
        ‘Year of 
Sorrow’. 

620:  The Journey to Taif and the terrible mis-treatment of the Prophet (saw).  
         The miraculous Isra and Miraaj - ascension to the heavens. 
 

621:  First pledge at Aqaba.  

622:  Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet (saw) and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.

623:   Nakhla expedition.  

624:  Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.  

625:  Battle of Uhud. Martyrdom of Muslims at Bir Mauna, which also included the Prophet’s           (saw) Uncle Hasrat Hamza (ra). Second expedition of Badr.   

626:  Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.   

627:  Battle of the Trench (Khandaq). Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.  

628:  Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet (saw) addresses letters to           various heads of states.  

629:  The Holy Prophet (saw) performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans).

630:  Conquest of Makkah.  

631:   Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.  

632:  Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.  

632:  The passing away of the Holy Prophet (saw) in the house of his dearest wife Hasrat Aisha            (Ra).   

Reference books used; 

Kitaab ul’Shifa. Imam Qadi Iyaad (Rh)
Al Mawaahib Laduniyyah. Imam Qastalani (Rh)
Al Burhan – The Conclusive Proof (Mufti Muhammad Ameen)
Life of Muhammad Salla lahu Alayhi Wa’ale Hi Wasallam.  Ghulam Sarwar
A Chronology of Islamic History.  H U Rahman


Zulfiqar Raja